Types Of Computer

There are different types of computer based on models, brands, speed and works.

1. Types of Computer Based On Model


Extended Technology(XT):

The IBM Personal Computer XT, often shortened to the IBM XT, PC XT, or simply XT, is a version of the IBM PC with a built-in hard drive. It was released on March 8, 1983. The XT was mainly intended as an enhanced IBM PC for business users.

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Advanced Technology (AT):

The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM’s second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984. The names AT stood for “Advanced Technology”, and was chosen because the AT offered various technologies that were then new in personal computers.

Advanced Technology Extended (ATX)

Short for Advanced Technology eXtended, ATX is a specification used to outline motherboard configuration and dimensions in an effort to improve standardization. First released in July of 1995 by Intel, ATX has since had many revisions.

Advantages of the ATX motherboard

  1. The ATX motherboard includes advanced control facilities, where theBIOS program continually checks the CPU temperature and voltages, the cooling fans RPM, etc. If overheating occurs, the PC will shut down automatically.
  2. The ATX motherboard has a stackedI/O connector panel mounted on the motherboard.
  3. On a socket 7 ATX motherboard, thesocket has been placed a further distance from the expansion slots, allowing for long boards to be placed in easier.
  4. ATX 2.01 includes a single keyed, Molex internal power supply connector which cannot be placed improperly. However, its standby voltage needs to be greater than 720 mA. While the Molex power connector allows for 5v and 3.3v to be connected, it is recommended that only a 3.3v be used.
  5. Relocation of the memory and the CPU allows for better ventilation and easier installation.
  6. Power management is now possible with proper BIOS support.
  7. The PC can also be turned on by a modem or network signal, since the power supply is controlled by the main board.
  8. The computer cannot be turned off as the computer boots. However, if the computer freezes as it is turning on you can turn off the computer by holding the power button for five seconds.

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2. Types of Computer Based On Brand


IBM PC:
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It was introduced on August 12, 1981 IBM compatible (1980). The term “PC” came to mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM’s PC products after the success of the IBM Personal Computer. IBM at first asked developers to avoid writing software that addressed the computer’s hardware directly, and to instead make standard calls to BIOS functions that carried out hardware-dependent operations.
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IBM PC compatible:
IBM PC compatible computers are those similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to run the same software and support the same expansion cards as those. The first IBM PC compatible was introduced in November 1982, the Compaq Portable. The Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer that was essentially 100% PC-compatible.
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Apple Macintosh:
The Macintosh (branded as Mac since 1998) is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. This was the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse.
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3. Types of Computer Based On Work


Analog Computer:
The computer which can process continuous variables only is the analog computer Analog computers were widely used in scientific and industrial applications where digital computers of the time lacked sufficient performance.
Example: Analog speedometer of motorbike, analog thermometer etc.
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Digital Computer:
The Digital computer can process discrete variables only. Most of the digital calculators are the example of the digital computer. Digital computer is a general-purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
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Example: Microcomputers are the digital computers.
Hybrid Computer:
The Hybrid computer can process continuous as well as discrete variables. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical and numerical operations, while the analog component often serves as a solver of differential equations and other mathematically complex equations. Hybrid Computer uses ADC(analog to digital convertor) and DAC(digital to analog convertor). The computer which is used in jet planes and fighter planes is the hybrid computer.
Example: for driving physical control systems, such as servomechanisms, Analog speedometer of motorbike, etc.
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4. Types of Computer Based On Speed


Super Computer:
Super computers are the most powerful and fastest of all computer system. Super computer are huge than mainframe computers. The supercomputers are being used in the complex scientific calculations and research project. The supercomputers are important innovation in history of computer. They may be employed in massive data processing, solving very complex problems. Supercomputers are designed to execute a single type of program. The execution of a single program supercomputer is faster than any other computer. These computers are used for research and exploration purposes, like NASA uses supercomputers for launching space shuttles, controlling them and for space exploration purpose. Supercomputers are also used in weather forecasting, rocket launching, seismology (Earthquake study), nuclear physics, weapon research and so on. The costs of these computers are very high (more than 15 million dollars).
Features
1) It is Huge in size and storage capacity.
2) It uses SRAM (Static Random Access Memory).
3) It is designed on RISC (Reduced instruction set computing).
4) It is designed for sensitive and precise data collection.
5) It has hardwired architecture design.

Example: CRAY I, CRAY X-MP, HITAC S-300 etc. are the popular super computers.

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Top five Supercomputers:

RANK: 1
SITE: National Super computer in Guangzhou, China
SYSTEM: Taine – 2 (Milky Way – 2)
CORES: 3,120,000
RMAX(TFLOPS/S): 33,862.7
RPEAK(TFLOPS/S): 54,902.4
POWER(KW): 17,808

RANK: 2
SITE: DOE/SC/Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States
SYSTEM: Titan – Cray XK7, Cray Inc.
CORES: 560,640
RMAX(TFLOPS/S): 17,590.0
RPEAK(TFLOPS/S): 27,112.5
POWER(KW): 8,209

RANK:3
SITE: DOE/NNSA/LLNL, United States
SYSTEM: Sequoia – Blue Gene/Q, IBM
CORES: 1,572,864
RMAX(TFLOPS/S): 17,173.2
RPEAK(TFLOPS/S): 20,132.7
POWER(KW): 7,890

RANK:4
SITE: RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS) Japan
SYSTEM: K Computer, Tofu Interconnect Fujitsu.
CORES: 705,024
RMAX(TFLOPS/S): 10,510.0
RPEAK(TFLOPS/S): 11,280.4
POWER(KW): 12,660

RANK:5
SITE: DOE/SC/Argonne National Laboratory, United States
SYSTEM: Mira – Blue Gene/Q, Custom IBM
CORES: 786,432
RMAX(TFLOPS/S): 8,586.6
RPEAK(TFLOPS/S): 10,066.3
POWER(KW): 3,945

Mainframe computer:
Mainframe was a term originally referring to the cabinet containing the central processor unit or “main frame” of a room-filling Stone Age batch machine. After the emergence of smaller “minicomputer” designs in the early 1970s, the traditional big iron machines were described as “mainframe computers” and eventually just as mainframes. Nowadays, Mainframe computer is larger than minicomputer and smaller than supercomputer. It has large storage capacity and large processing speed. It is designed to perform many programs concurrently. It is used in government offices for their large data operations. It is very popular in database field. It is also applied as web server. It can support more than 1000 processors at the same time.
The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.

Example: Fujitsu’s ICL VME, Hitachi’s Z800

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Minicomputer :
The mini computer is larger in size comparing microcomputer but it has a big storage capacity and processing capabilities. Minicomputers are also called as “Midrange Computers”. This computer is mostly used in connection more terminal or workstations. Workstations are points where the workers work sharing a single computer as the file server. These computers are not designed for a single user. A minicomputer may have as many as 100 or more terminals connected to it. It is a midsize multi-processing system capable of supporting up to 250 users simultaneously. Individual departments of a large company or organizations use Mini-computers for specific purposes. For example, a production department can use Mini-computers for monitoring certain production process.
Examples: K-202, Texas Instrument TI-990, SDS-92, IBM Midrange computers
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Micro computer
The micro-computers are widely used & the fastest growing computers.
A computer which is based on the microprocessor is called a microcomputer. It is small, low cost digital computer. Microcomputer has a microprocessor on a single chip, which is its Central Processing Unit (CPU). It also has other units like input devices memory unit. It is also called personal computer. IBM PC, Apple Macintosh etc. are the microcomputers.
The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes.

Microcomputer can be classified as follows:
1) Desktop:
A desktop computer is a personal computer in a form intended for regular use at a single location desk/table. It is large in size compare to laptop and any other micro computers. It is due to its size and power requirements.
Advantages
1) It is lower in price.
2) It can easily assemble and disassemble.
3) We can attach and modify the configuration and parts easily.
4) It has higher performance and low thermal problem.

Disadvantages
1) It can’t be carried out easily.
2) It is large in size.
3) It consumes high power.

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2) Laptop:
A lap is a surface (usually horizontal) created between the knee and hips of a biped when it is in a seated or lying down position. We can use laptop on the lap so it is called laptop. Or laptop is the microcomputer which we can use by keeping on Lap.
A laptop, often called a notebook, is a portable personal computer with a clamshell form factor, suitable for mobile use. Laptop allows it to be regularly carried and used in different locations because of rechargeable battery and compact dimensions. It can be carried on the bag.
Advantages
1) It has low power consuming.
2) It is portable.
3) It is light is weight and small in size.
4) It has compact all the components needed for microcomputer.
Disadvantages
1) It needs technicians for maintenances.
2) Assembling and disassembling is difficult.
3) Problem in disposing of battery.
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3) Palmtop:
A Palm is the central region of the front of the hand. A palmtop is a type of microcomputer which can be use by easily keeping on the palm. It is the smallest micro computer. It is lightest micro computer. It is also known as PDA (Personal Data Assistant). It is easily portable and can be carried on the pocket.
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