Computer Architecture

computer architecture

Fig: Computer Architecture

a.Input Units: The media or devices through which data and instructions are fed to the computer are known as Input Units.
The most common input devices are keyboard, mouse and touchpad. Some other input devices are trackball, joystick, scanner, light pen etc. Computer cannot produce output unless inputs are given. The input devices are used to give input to the computer, so input devices are very important.
b. Processing unit: The processing unit is responsible for the process of the data and information inside the computer. Hence, The CPU is the known as brain of the computer. It controls the sequence of operations as per the given instructions. After the data processing operation the results are sends to the output units as new data. It controls all the parts and functions of the computer.
The CPU has three different Units:-
i) Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU): This unit performs all arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and logical operations. (Comparison) It plays vital role in the decision making. Data is transferred from primary storage to arithmetic and logic sections as well as vice versa for performing ALU operations.
ii) Control Unit(CU): This unit controls all the activities within computer system. It’s function is initiate sequence of micro operations. The data and instructions are being processed are interpreted in CU. It generates control signal to control other units.
iii) Memory Unit(MU): This unit is the part of the computer that holds the intermediate results during the course of calculations process. It stores the data and instruction on which the processor is currently working. It is known as registers. It is the site where the input data and instruction are stored before the operation. When the processing is complete, it returns its data to the output device. MU and storage devices are different with each other.
c. Output units: The units or devices that are responsible for display the results processed by the computer is known as output devices. Some of the common output devices used in the today‘s computing is printer, monitor, plotter, speaker, projectors, etc.
d. Storage Units: The results produced by the computer may be required for the future use and so the data and information are stored in the devices for future use that devices are called as the storage unit. These are many storage devices such as CD-ROM, dvd-rom, hard disks, Floppy disks, Magnetic tapes, etc.

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